Me yasa radial wasa da haƙuri ba ɗaya bane

Akwai ɗan rikicewa game da alaƙar tsakanin daidaiton ɗaukar nauyi, haƙurin masana'antarta da matakin tsabtace ciki ko 'wasa' tsakanin hanyoyin mota da ƙwallo. A nan, Wu Shizheng, manajan darakta na ƙanana da ƙanana gwani JITO Bearings, ya ba da haske game da dalilin da ya sa wannan tatsuniyar ta ci gaba da abin da injiniyoyi ya kamata su sa ido.

A lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na Biyu, a cikin masana'antar kera makamai a Scotland, wani ɗan sanannen mutum mai suna Stanley Parker ya haɓaka tunanin matsayin gaskiya, ko abin da muka sani a yau a matsayin Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing (GD&T). Parker ya lura da cewa duk da cewa wasu kayan aikin da ake kerawa don birgima ana kin su bayan an gama duba su, ana ci gaba da aika su.

Bayan dubawa sosai, ya gano cewa auna haƙuri ne ke da laifi. Hanyoyin haɗin kai na XY na gargajiya sun ƙirƙiri yankin haƙurin haƙuri, wanda ya keɓance ɓangaren duk da cewa yana da matsayi a cikin madaidaiciyar madaidaiciyar madaidaiciya tsakanin sasann murabba'in. Ya ci gaba da wallafa bincikensa game da yadda za a tantance matsayin gaskiya a cikin wani littafi mai suna zane da girma.

* Yarda cikin gida
A yau, wannan fahimtar yana taimaka mana don haɓaka haɓaka wanda ke nuna wani matakin wasa ko sassauci, in ba haka ba ana san shi da yarda ta ciki ko, musamman musamman, radial da wasan axial. Wasan radiyo shine yarda da aka auna ta gefe da akushin ɗauka kuma wasan axial shine yarda da aka auna a layi daya zuwa axis mai ɗauka.

An tsara wannan wasan a cikin ɗaukar kaya tun daga farko don bawa damar ɗaukar nauyi don tallafawa abubuwa a cikin yanayi daban-daban, la'akari da dalilai kamar fadada zafin jiki da kuma yadda dacewa tsakanin zobba na ciki da na waje zai shafi ɗaukar rayuwa.

Musamman, yarda zai iya shafar amo, jijjiga, damuwar zafi, karkacewa, rarraba kaya da rayuwar gajiya. Wasan radial mafi girma kyawawa ne a cikin yanayin inda ake tsammanin zoben ciki ko shaft ya ƙara zafi da faɗaɗa yayin amfani idan aka kwatanta da zoben waje ko gidaje. A wannan halin, wasan da za'a buga zai rage. Akasin haka, wasa zai karu idan zoben waje ya fadada fiye da zoben ciki.

Wasan wasa mafi girma yana da kyawawa a cikin tsarin inda akwai daidaituwa tsakanin shaft da gidaje kamar yadda misalignment na iya haifar da ɗaukar nauyi tare da ƙaramin ciki don kasawa da sauri. Haɓakawa mafi girma na iya ba da damar ɗaukar haƙuri don jimre wa ƙananan ɗimbin nauyi yayin da yake gabatar da kusurwar lamba mafi girma.

* Kayan aiki
Yana da mahimmanci injiniyoyi su buge madaidaicin daidaiton aikin ciki a ciki. Bearingarfin ɗaukar nauyi tare da ƙarancin wasa zai haifar da zafi mai yawa da gogayya, wanda zai haifar da ƙwallon ƙwallo a cikin filin tsere da hanzarta sawa. Hakanan, yin yawa da yawa zai ƙara ƙararrawa da rawar jiki kuma yana rage daidaitattun juyawa.

Ana iya sarrafa ikon sharewa ta amfani da madaidaitan yanayi. Injiniyan yayi daidai yana nufin yarda tsakanin ɓangarorin ma'aurata biyu. Wannan yawanci ana kwatanta shi azaman rami a cikin rami kuma yana wakiltar matakin matsewa ko sakowa tsakanin shaft da zoben ciki da tsakanin zoben waje da mahalli. Yawancin lokaci yana bayyana kansa a cikin sako-sako, dacewa don dacewa ko matsatsi, fitinar dacewa.

Tsananin dacewa tsakanin zobe na ciki da shaft yana da mahimmanci don adana shi a wuri kuma don hana rarrafe ko ɓatan da ba a so, wanda zai iya haifar da zafi da jijjiga da haifar da ƙasƙanci.

Koyaya, dacewa da tsangwama zai rage yarda a cikin ɗaukar ball yayin da yake faɗaɗa zoben ciki. Daidaita daidaitaccen daidaituwa tsakanin mahalli da zoben waje a ɗauke tare da ƙaramar radial zai matse zoben waje kuma zai rage yarda ko da ƙari. Wannan zai haifar da rashin yarda na ciki - wanda ya sanya rami ya fi rami girma - kuma ya haifar da gogayya da yawa da gazawar farko.

Manufar shine a sami yanayin wasan motsa jiki lokacin da ɗaukar nauyi ke gudana a ƙarƙashin yanayi na yau da kullun. Koyaya, wasan radial na farko wanda ake buƙata don cimma wannan na iya haifar da matsaloli tare da zira kwallaye ko zamiya, rage taurin kai da daidaituwar juyawa. Ana iya cire wannan wasan radial na farko ta amfani da preloading. Saukewa wata hanya ce ta ɗora kaya na dindindin a kan abin ɗorawa, da zarar ya dace, ta amfani da wanki ko maɓuɓɓugan ruwa waɗanda suka dace da zobe na ciki ko na waje.

Hakanan injiniyoyi dole ne suyi la’akari da gaskiyar cewa yana da sauki don rage yarda a cikin sifa mai ɗaukar nauyi saboda zobba suna da siriri kuma suna da sauƙin canzawa. A matsayinta na mai kera kananan karamomi, JITO Bearings yana baiwa kwastomominsa shawara cewa dole ne a kula sosai da kayan kwalliyar-zuwa-gida. Shaft da zagayen gida shima yana da mahimmanci tare da bambance-bambance na sirara saboda igiyar da ba ta zagaye ba zata nakasa zobba siririya kuma ƙara ƙarfi, faɗakarwa da karfin juyi.

* Haƙuri
Rashin fahimta game da rawar radial da wasan axial ya sa mutane da yawa ruɗe alaƙar da ke tsakanin wasa da daidaito, musamman daidaiton da ya samo asali daga mafi haƙurin masana'antu.

Wasu mutane suna tunanin cewa babban ɗaukar madaidaici ba shi da kusan wasa kuma ya kamata ya juya daidai. A gare su, wasan radial mara nauyi yana jin ƙarancin daidaito kuma yana ba da ra'ayi na ƙarancin inganci, kodayake yana iya zama madaidaiciyar madaidaiciyar ɗauke da gangan da aka tsara tare da sako-sako da wasa. Misali, mun taba tambayar wasu daga cikin kwastomominmu a da dalilin da yasa suke son samar da daidaito mafi girma kuma sun fada mana cewa suna so, “rage wasan”.

Koyaya, gaskiya ne cewa haƙuri yana inganta daidaito. Ba da daɗewa ba bayan bayyanar samar da ɗimbin yawa, injiniyoyi sun fahimci cewa ba shi da amfani ko tattalin arziki, idan ma zai yiwu ko kaɗan, kera kayayyaki biyu da suka yi daidai da juna. Ko da lokacin da duk masu canji na masana'antu suka kasance iri ɗaya, koyaushe za a sami bambance-bambance na minti tsakanin sashi ɗaya da na gaba.

A yau, wannan ya zo don wakiltar yarda ko yarda da haƙuri. Azuzuwan haƙuri don ɗaukar ƙwallon ƙwal, wanda aka sani da ƙimar ISO (metric) ko ABEC (inch), ƙayyade ɓataccen izinin da ɗaukar ma'aunai gami da girman zoben ciki da na waje da zagayen zobba da hanyoyin mota. Matsayi mafi girma da ƙarfin haƙuri, mafi daidaiton ɗaukar nauyi zai kasance da zarar an haɗu.

Ta hanyar buga daidaitattun daidaito tsakanin dacewa da radial da wasan axial yayin amfani, injiniyoyi na iya cimma daidaitaccen sifilin aikin aiki da tabbatar da ƙara ƙararrawa da juyawa daidai. A yin haka, zamu iya share rikice-rikice tsakanin daidaito da wasa kuma, kamar yadda Stanley Parker ya canza ƙimar masana'antu, a asali canza yadda muke kallon ɗaukar hoto.


Post lokaci: Mar-04-2021